Unani Medicine | Tibb E Unani - Basic Theory and Fundamentals (2022)

Unani Medicine (also called TIBB E UNANI) is a traditional system of medicine originated in Greece, influenced by the ancient science of Ayurveda and became part of traditional Arabic and Islamic medicine. It got fame during Mughal Empire in India and now famous among people in India, Pakistan, several parts of Central Asia and South Asia.

Unani Medicine is an ancient system of medicine that is believed to have originated in the Perso-Arabic regions dating back almost 5000 years. Today, the Unani system, with its recognized practitioners, research and educational institutions, and hospitals, forms an important part of the healthcare delivery system in several countries, especially in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.

It was widely practiced in the Mughal India and some regions of the South Asia. It is also popular in the modern-day Central Asia. The meaning of the term ‘Unani’ is medicines that are the symbol of a healthy life. This system derives its name from the Arabic word, ‘YUNANI” , which originated from the Greek word ‘IONIAN’ in the Greece, as the principles and concept of this Perso-Arabic system were, in turn, derived from the teachings of Galen and Hippocrates, the great Greek physicians during those times.

This system owes its current form to the Arabs as they saved the Greek literature and rendered it to the Arabs and also enriched this system with their own contributions by making extensive use of their knowledge of Anatomy, Physiology, Chemistry, Physics, Botany, Pathology, Surgery, and Therapeutics.

It is also called the ‘Tibb-E-Unani’. This term is derived from the word ‘Tibb’ which means the knowledge of the state of a human body while in health and during the decline of health.Unani means symbol of life.

However, it is also largely influenced by the Chinese and Indian traditional healing systems.

Unani medicine strives to find the best methods to help humans lead a healthy life with minimal or zero risks of any sickness. It prescribes diet, drinks, drugs, and some other regiments such as the code of conduct that is favorable for the maintenance and promotion of health for the prevention and treatment of diseases. The ultimate goal of this system is the creation of a healthy society through scientific prescriptions.

Introduction of Unani system of Medicine in India

The Unani System has an impressive and encouraging record in India. It was introduced in this country by the Persians and Arabs around the eleventh century. India, today, is one of the leading countries having the largest number of Unani educational, healthcare and research institutions.

It was the ancient rulers in the north India who provided patronage to the experts of Unani System and enrolled some scholars as court physicians to help this system develop in the country. Today, Unani Medicine is enriched by imbibing the best from the contemporary systems of traditional medicines in the Syria, Egypt, Iraq, India, Persia, China and other Middle East countries.

(Video) Unani System of Medicine (Part-01 + History, Basic concept and Principle) By Solution Pharmacy

Basic Theory of Unani Medicine

The theoretical framework of Unani Medicine was introduced by Greek physician Hippocrates (460 – 377 BC), then enriched by Galen (131 – 210 AD), Rhazes (850 – 925 AD) and Avicenna (980 – 1037 AD).

Unani Medicine is based on Hippocratic Theory of Medicine established in Greece by Hippocrates, who believes in four basic elements, also called ‘ANASIR-E-ARBA’.

HAVAAir
PANIWater
MITTIEarth
DHUPSunlight

The Unani Medicinesystem is based on the principle of the four-humor concept of Hippocrates. It presupposes the presence of four humors: blood, yellow bile, phlegm, and black bile in the body. Unani Medicine believes four humors (four Dosha) in the body, which when are in balance, a person is healthy and which when getting imbalance, a person suffers from the disease. The Hellenistic origin of this system is visible in the fact that it’s based on the classical theory of four humors. These basic elements in different combinations or permutations build basic four biological constituents called AKHLAT (humours).

UnaniEnglish
BALGHAMPhlegm
DAMBlood
SAFRAYellow Bile
SAUDABlack Bile

The blood dominates in these humours and other humors depend on it.

The state of balance in four humours is called health and imbalanced state of these humours is called disease.

The goal of Unani Medicine is to achieve the healthy state of individual by balancing these four humours in the body. Unani treatment is based on this principle and it treats the person as a whole, not only the disease.

UMOOR E TABAIYA (Fundamentals of Physique)

It believes that the human body is made of seven components including ARKAN (Elements), MIZAJ (Temperament), AKHLAT (Humors), AAZA (Organs), ARWAH (Spirits), QUWA (Faculties), and AFAAL (Functions). These components can be described as follows.

The body consists of 7 basic components, which are called UMOOR E TABAIYA (Fundamentals of Physique):

ARKANBasic Elements
AKHLATHumors
MIZAJTemperament
AAZAParts of body or organs
QUWAFaculty of power
ARWAH (ARVAH)Soul or Vital forces
AFAALFunction

The balance of these components is the health and imbalance of these components cause disease. The loss of these components can cause disability or lead to death.

(Video) FUNDAMENTALS OF UNANI MEDICINE BY Hkm. MOHAMMAD ARIF , B.U.M.S. MD (Unani ENT Specialist)

ARKAN (Elements)

The human body is composed of four elements, which are air, earth, water and fire, each of these having its own temperament. The temperament of air is described as hot and moist while that of the earth is cold and dry. The fire has a hot and dry temperament and water has the moist and cold temperament.

MIZAJ (Temperament)

The Unani system gives high importance to the temperament of the individual while treating any disease. It considers that the temperament of every individual is unique to him or her. The temperament is based on or develops due to the interaction of the 5 elements. The temperament is considered real equitable when the elements are in equal quantities. However, this is an ideal state of a human body, which does not exist. The temperament is considered equitable when there is a presence of the required and just amounts of compatible temperaments. The temperament is considered inequitable when there is an absence of proper distribution of the temperament according to the requirement of the human body.

AKHLAT (Humors)

Humors are the fluid or moist components of the body that are produced after metabolism and the transformation of 4 elements. The humors perform various functions in the body such as maintaining the nutrition, promoting growth and repair and producing energy, all of which allow for the preservation of the health of an individual. These humors are responsible for maintaining moisture in different organs and tissues and provide nutrition to the body through 4 stages of digestion as given below:

  1. Gastric digestion: In this stage, the food is turned into chyle and chyme and carried to the liver by the mesenteric veins.
  2. Hepatic digestion: in this stage, the chyle is converted into the four humors in different quantities, with that of the blood being the highest. The blood that leaves the liver is mixed with the other humors: phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile.
  3. Vessels: The humors flow through the blood vessels supplying blood to all the organs and tissues as they absorb the nutrition from the blood. The tissues obtain this nutrition from the blood by its attractive power and are able to retain it by its retentive power.
  4. Tissue digestion: Later, the digestive and assimilative powers of the body convert it into tissues. The tissues use their expulsive power to excrete the waste material in the humor.

According to the Unani Medicine, any disturbance in the equilibrium of these humors results in the initiation and progress of a disease. Hence, the treatment must be aimed at restoring this equilibrium.

AAZA (Organs)

The body is composed of several organs. The health or diseased state of each organ affects the equilibrium in the entire body resulting in the loss of a healthy state for the person as a whole.

ARWAH (Spirits)

Spirit or RUH is a gaseous substance that is obtained from the air we breathe. It is essential for the normal functions of the organs and for performing metabolic activities in the body. It burns AKHLAT LATIFAH in order to produce QUWA (faculties or powers). Hence, it is considered the source of energy and vitality for the body. These are considered the life force and hence, are of prime importance for the diagnosis and treatment of any disease. These are considered ascarriers of different powers that form the entire body system and make its individual parts functional.

QUWA (Faculties)

These are the three forms of power:

1. QUWA TABIYAH

It is the natural power that is released during the process of metabolism and reproduction. This power is largely released in the liver. It is also released by the other tissue of the body in small amounts. Metabolism includes several processes that ensure proper nutrition and growth of the human body. It obtains its nutrition from the food, which is carried to all parts of the body. The growth power helps in the regeneration and growth of the human body.

2. QUWA NAFSANIYAH

It is the Psychic or nervous power. It is located in the brain and responsible for the motor and perceptive abilities of a person. The perceptive power conveys the sensations and impressions while the motive power helps in the movements of the body in response to the sensations.

(Video) Teaching of Greek Medicine Lecture No.6 || Tadrees e tibb e unani lature no.6

3. QUWA HAYWANIYAH

It is the vital power that is responsible for the survival of life. This power is located in the heart. It enables the organs to recognize and accept the effects of psychic power. It keeps the life running in the cells and tissues.

AFAAL (Functions)

AFAAL (Functions) refers to the functions and movement of all organs in the body. In a healthy body, all the organs are in a proper shape or without any structural abnormality and perform their respective functions in an efficient manner.

Hence, according to the Unani system, health refers to the state of a human body in which all its functions are carried out in a normal way while the disease is the state in which one or more forms of the organs are abnormal or at fault.

Diagnosis in the Unani system

The Diagnosis of an illness in the Unani system is dependent on the observation and physical examination. It believes that any illness is a product of the following factors:

  1. The materials the person is made of
  2. The temperament of the person
  3. The structure and strength of his faculties

The different forms of factors operating on him from outside

Based on the interaction between these factors, the nature and the cause of illness are determined and an appropriate treatment plan is devised. The diagnosis involves determining the causes of disease, which can be achieved by the Pulse (NABZ) reading and the examination of stool and urine. The other conventional means of examination of a patient such as inspection, palpation, percussion and auscultation are also used for the purpose of diagnosis.

Prevention of Disease

Unani system of medicine stresses on the importance of prevention of diseases. It recognizes the influence of the environment and lifestyle habits of the patients on the state of his health. It emphasizes the need for keeping water, air, and food free from impurities or pollutants. It proposes six essentials pre-requisites or ASBAB SITTA E ZARORIAYAH for the promotion of health and prevention of diseases, which include:

Air

It proposes that clean and good air is necessary for preventing diseases and maintaining health. The system emphasizes the need for well-ventilated houses. It believes that a positive change in the environment can relieve the patients of many diseases.

Diet

Eating fresh foods that are free from disease-producing matter like germs and putrefaction can help to prevent diseases. The system strongly supports the need for keeping the water free from impurities. Dirty water is considered a carrier of infective diseases.

Psychic movement and repose

Physical activities, as well as proper rest, are considered essential for maintaining the health. Exercises help to stimulate the growth of muscles and ensure optimum nutrition. It maintains the health of the heart and liver. It also increases the blood supply and ensures proper functioning of the excretory system.

(Video) Unani system of medicine

Bodily movement and repose

The system recognizes the impact of psychological factors including the positive emotions like happiness and negative emotions like anger and sorrow on the health of a person.

Sleep and wakefulness

It considers maintaining the sleep and wakefulness cycle essential for good health. Sleep provides physical and mental rest. The lack of sound sleep can cause mental weakness, dissipation of energy, and digestive disturbances.

Evacuation and retention

An optimum functioning of the excretory organs is necessary for maintaining the health. Accumulation of waste products in the body can lead to a sickness.

Treatment in the Unani system

The treatment in Unani Medicine is based on the holistic approach. It considers the entire personality of the patient including his physique, structure, make-up, reaction to the environmental factors, defense mechanism, and likes and dislikes. Unani Medicine includes the following types of treatment:

Regimental Therapy (ILAJ-BIL-TADBIR)

Regimental therapy involves special technique and physical methods aimed at improving and stabilizing the constitution of the body. It involves removing the waste materials and improving the immunity or the defense mechanisms of the body to protect health. It is a form of a detoxification therapy. Some of the important techniques in the regimental therapy include:

  • Venesection (FASD)
  • Cupping (AL-HIJAMA)
  • Sweating (TAREEQ)
  • Diuresis (IDRAR-E- BAUL)
  • Turkish bath (HAMAM)

Diet therapy (ILAJ-BIL-GHIZA)

Food plays an important role in the treatment of Unani system. It believes that several ailments can be treated by just regulating the quantity and quality of food. The foods are categorized as laxative, diuretic or diaphoretic and these properties are used for the treatment of diseases. It also proposes special diets for specific diseases.

Pharmacotherapy (ILAJ-BIL-DAWA)

This form of treatment involves the use of medications prepared mainly from natural ingredients such as herbs, and the substances of mineral and animal origin. It uses only the natural ingredients for preparing medicines as they are easily available in the local regions and safe for the human body. It presupposes that the natural ingredients have their own temperament and prescribing a medicine that goes well with the temperament of the person can help to accelerate the process of healing.

The medicines are classified into four classes based on their temperament. The different forms of medications used in the Unani system include:

  • Anoshdaru
  • Arq (Distillate)
  • Habb (Unani Pill)
  • Halwa
  • Itrifal
  • Jawarish
  • Labub (Laboob)
  • Khamira
  • Kushta
  • Majun (Electuaries)
  • Marham (Unani Ointment)
  • Roghan
  • Safoof
  • Sharbat (Unani)
  • Qurs

Surgery (ILAJ-BIL-YAD)

Although the Unani Medicine is considered the pioneer in the field of surgery, its use is limited in this system. It has developed its own techniques and instruments for performing surgeries.

(Video) Brief Intro of Unani medicine/यूनानी पद्धति का संक्षिप्त परिचय/یونانی طب کا مختصر تعارف/ Hindi/Urdu

Basic Terminology in Unani Medicine

Unani TermsMeaning in English
UMOOR E TABAIYAFundamentals of Physique
TIBB-E- ILMITheory
TIBB-E- AMLIPractical
TABIYATPhysique
ARVAHSoul or Vital forces
ARKANBasic Elements
AKHLATHumors
MIZAJTemperament
QUWAFaculty of power
AF-AALFunction
AAZAParts of body

FAQs

What is the basic principle of Unani? ›

Al-Umoor al-tabiyah: basic physiological principles

These principles include (1) arkan, or elements, (2) mizaj, or temperament, (3) akhlat, or bodily humours, (4) aaza, or organs and systems, (5) arwah, or vital spirit, (6) quwa, or faculties or powers, and (7) afaal, or functions.

What are four basic elements of Unani system of medicine? ›

Unani medicine and the Concept of Health

According to Unani philosophy, the body is made up of the four basic elements i.e. Earth, Air, water and fire which have different temperaments i.e. cold, hot, wet and dry respectively [13].

What is Unani medicine system? ›

The Unani System of Medicine offers treatment of diseases related to all the systems and organs of the human body. The treatments for chronic ailments and diseases of skin, liver, musculo-skeletal and reproductive systems, immunological and lifestyle disorders have been found to be highly effective and acceptable.

Who is father of Unani medicine? ›

Hakim Ajmal Khan (1868-1927 AD) pioneered research in Unani Medicine with modern scientific parameters in the 1920s.

Who is Unani people? ›

Unani or Yunani medicine (Urdu: طب یونانی tibb yūnānī) is Perso-Arabic traditional medicine as practiced in Muslim culture in South Asia and modern day Central Asia. Unani medicine is pseudoscientific. The Indian Medical Association describes Unani practitioners who claim to practice medicine as quacks.

What is Arkan in Unani? ›

In Unani medicine: Arkan and mizaj: elements and temperament. As four simple, indivisible entities—arz (earth), maa (water), nar (fire), and hawa (air)—arkan not only constitutes the primary components of the human body but also makes up all other creations in the universe.

How is Unani medicine prepared? ›

Like any other traditional system of medicine, Unani also relies on preparing medicines from herbs obtained from the field or the forest. This involves gathering, processing – either by cutting or other action, and then mixing it with other herbal ingredients to prepare medicines for specific ailments.

What language is Unani? ›

Unani (also spelt Yunani) refers to the tradition of Graeco-Arabic medicine.

Who introduced Unani medicine in India? ›

During the 13th and 17th century, Unani Medicine had its heyday in India. Among those who made valuable contributions to this system in the period were, to name only a few, Abu Bakr bin Ali Usman Kashani, Sadruddin Dimashqui, Bahwa bin Khwas Khan, Ali Geelani, Akbar Arzani and Mohammad Hashim Alvi Khan.

Where is Unani medicine from? ›

The history of Unani system of medicine can be traced back to ancient Egypt and Babylon. Egyptians made use of medicinal plants as a remedy for ailments. They also initiated surgery as a method of treatment.

Which is best Unani brand? ›

1. The Tayyebi Dawakhana Unani (Indore) Private Limited:
  • Surkh Oil (Unani Pain Relief Oil)
  • Habbe Akbari (Tablets For Stomach Disorder)
  • Kamal Burhani Pills (Cold and Cough Tablets)
  • Jamal.
  • Labub-E-KABIR Qisme Ala.
  • Majun Arad Khurma.
  • Majoon Falasfa.
  • Dawa Ul Misk Motadil Jawahardar.

Where is Unani practiced? ›

The Unani system of medicine is practiced widely in Persia, Pakistan, and India. It is also practiced in South Africa, England and other countries. The Unani system is sometimes called Hikmat or Unani-Tibb.

When did Unani medicine start? ›

Nanomedicine derives much of its rhetorical, technological, and scientific strength from the scale on which it operates (1 to 100 nm), the size of molecules and biochemical functions. The term nanomedicine emerged in 1999, the year when American scientist Robert A. Freitas Jr.

Is Unani and Ayurveda same? ›

Ayurveda focuses on the imbalances of the dosha – Vata, Pitta and Kapha and curates medicine that helps balance these doshas. Unani uses eight diagnosis methods for effective results which include pulse, stool, urine, tongue, speech, vision, touch and appearance.

Who is known as Indian father of medicine? ›

Sushruta (c. 7th or 6th century BCE) was a physician in ancient India known today as the “Father of Indian Medicine” and “Father of Plastic Surgery” for inventing and developing surgical procedures.

Can Unani doctors do surgery? ›

As an Unani doctor, you will diagnose patients, give them Unani medication (only approved as per Homoeopathy and recognised by Indian medicine association). However, you cannot prescribe any modern-day medicine nor can you perform allopathic surgeries.

Does Unani medicine have side effects? ›

Unani System of Medicine based on Hippocratic theory of humours is well established in India. Simultaneously it is also believed that Unani dosage forms acts on human body in holistic way and do not exhibit the adverse effects. It is true up to some extent but not at all.

Can a BUMS doctor perform delivery? ›

No bhms doctor is licensed to perform the surgery as caeserion is one of the prominent surgery process it requires specialization in gynaecology . All the best.

What is Kulliyat Umoor e Tabiya? ›

Kulliyat Umoore Ṭabiya is a fundamental subject which provides the basis for the study of Unani medicine as it deals with the governing principles of this medicine. These principles distinguish Unani medicine from other systems of medicine.

Who gave the royal patronage Unani system? ›

Alauddin Khalji (d. 1316) had several eminent physicians (Hakims) at his royal courts. [15] This royal patronage led to the development of Unani in India, and also the creation of Unani literature.

Which system of medicine does not entirely depend on the medicinal properties of plants? ›

Of the four systems of medicine- Ayurveda, Alope medicinal oes not entirely depend on the medicinal and Allopathy, Unani, Siddha, which system d properties of plants?

What is the Unani Tibb philosophy? ›

The foundation of Unani Tibb therapy is lifestyle reform. This embraces changing a person's diet where necessary, encouraging more physical exercise, better breathing methods, improving sleep quality, and more effective detoxification.

What is Unani medicine Slideshare? ›

unani or Unani medicine (Urdu: طب یونانی tibb yūnānī) is the term for Perso-Arabic traditional medicine, practiced in Mughal India and in Muslim culture in South Asia and modern day Central Asia.

Can Unani doctors practice allopathy? ›

Over a month after its controversial decision to allow homeopathic doctors to prescribe allopathy drugs, the state Cabinet has decided to allow unani and ayurveda practitioners to legally prescribe allopathic drugs and perform minor surgeries.

Who is known as father of Ayurveda? ›

Ayurveda is attributed to Dhanvantari, the physician to the gods in Hindu mythology, who received it from Brahma.

Who founded Siddha? ›

Agastyar or Agasthya, is believed to be the founding father of Siddha Medicine. Eighteen Siddhars are considered to be pillars of Siddha Medicine.

What is Siddha in Ayush? ›

What is Siddha? One of the seven Ayush systems, Siddha system of medicine is an ancient traditional system of medicine that originated in South India. It is believed to be one of India's oldest documented systems of medicine which is based on a combination of ancient medicinal practices and spiritual disciplines.

What is World Unani day? ›

World Unani Day celebrates the Islamic Unani system of medicine. The day is observed on February 11, which is the birthday of noted physician Hakim Ajmal Khan, the pioneer of Unani medicine in India.

Is Hamdard Unani or Ayurvedic? ›

Hamdard Laboratories (India), is a Unani pharmaceutical company in India (following the independence of India from Britain, "Hamdard" Unani branches were established in Bangladesh (erstwhile East Pakistan) and Pakistan).

Is Unani medicine good for weight loss? ›

Unani herbal Medicine plays an important role in the management of obesity. Number of herbs is documented in Unani classics to reduce weight and studies have also been carried out for its anti-obesity activity.

What you mean by Ayush? ›

AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy and are the six Indian systems of medicine prevalent and practiced in India and some of the neighboring Asian countries with very few exceptions in some of the developed countries.

Can we take Unani medicine with allopathic medicine? ›

Yes. You can take both medicines.

What is the full form of BAMS? ›

The full form of BAMS is Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery . BAMS is a five-and-a-half-year degree program covering analyzes of the integrated traditional ayurvedic system and modern medicine. Out of 5.5 years in medicine, 4.5 years in nursing and one year in an internship.

What are the basic principles of Ayurveda? ›

Ayurveda believes that the entire universe is composed of five elements: Vayu (Air), Jala (Water), Aakash (Space or ether), Prithvi (Earth) and Teja (Fire). These five elements (referred to as Pancha Mahabhoota in Ayurveda) are believed to form the three basic humors of human body in varying combinations.

What are the principles of Siddha? ›

Siddha system is based on 96 basic principles (96 Thathuvangal).
...
  • Venthayam (Trigonella foenum-graceum L)
  • Vembu (Azadirachta indica)
  • Vilvam (Aegle marmelos)
  • Adhathodai (Justicia adhatoda)
  • Amukkara (Withania somnifera)
  • Athi (Ficus racemosa)
  • Attruthumatti (Citrullus colocynthis)
  • Athimathuram (Glycyrrhiza glabra)
25 Sept 2015

Do Muslims use herbs? ›

Various herbs, which are commonly used in traditional Islamic medicine, can have an impact on human body systems. Natural products are primary sources of effective drugs with novel structures and distinct mechanisms of action for the treatment of various types of complications as well as the drug discovery process.

What is Siddha system? ›

Siddha medicine, traditional system of healing that originated in South India and is considered to be one of India's oldest systems of medicine. The Siddha system is based on a combination of ancient medicinal practices and spiritual disciplines as well as alchemy and mysticism.

Who is father of Ayurveda? ›

Ayurveda is attributed to Dhanvantari, the physician to the gods in Hindu mythology, who received it from Brahma.

What are the 5 elements Ayurveda? ›

Ayurvedic principles state that the cosmos are compiled of the “Pancha Maha Bhutas” also known as the “Five Great Elements.” These elements originate from the “Pancha Tanmatra” known as sound (shabda), touch (sparsha), vision (roopa), taste (rasa), and smell (gandha).

What are the six qualities of Ayurvedic medicine? ›

There are six major tastes according to Ayurveda, viz., sweet, sour, salty, pungent, bitter, and astringent. There are primary and secondary qualities (guna) that increase the properties of a material. This is further augmented by potency (virya), post digestive effect (vipaka), and therapeutic action (karma).

Where did Unani system originated? ›

The history of Unani system of medicine can be traced back to ancient Egypt and Babylon. Egyptians made use of medicinal plants as a remedy for ailments. They also initiated surgery as a method of treatment.

Which theory is followed in Siddha system of medicine? ›

The Pancheekaranam theory (Five Fold Combination) of Siddha science explains the origin and formation of these basic elements as well as the role of these five elements in the formation of every substance both in the universe and in humans.

Who invented Siddha Medicine? ›

Agastyar or Agasthya, is believed to be the founding father of Siddha Medicine. Eighteen Siddhars are considered to be pillars of Siddha Medicine.

What is Islamic medicine called? ›

In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine, also known as Arabic medicine, refers to the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic.

What is Islamic medicine? ›

Islamic medicine is the body of medical knowledge and practice which began in the early Islamic period and which is being currently practiced by Muslim physicians in Muslim and non-Muslim countries.

Do Muslims believe in modern medicine? ›

Contemporary Muslims' approach to health care is still strongly based on preventative measures. In many cases, although Muslim patients seek a curative process through surgical or medical means, they still look to their religious and cultural heritage to address their spiritual, social and cultural needs.

What is called Siddha? ›

Siddha (Sanskrit: सिद्ध siddha; "perfected one") is a term that is used widely in Indian religions and culture. It means "one who is accomplished." It refers to perfected masters who have achieved a high degree of physical as well as spiritual perfection or enlightenment.

Which is oldest Siddha or Ayurveda? ›

Ayurveda is the original system of the Indian subcontinent including Tamil Nadu. Siddha is a linguistically and politically developed medical system around the 1920s. Before 1920 there was no Siddha, it was all Ayurveda, precisely Tamil Ayurveda.

How many types of medicines are used in Siddha? ›

Siddha system classifies all medicinal preparations into 64 categories, of which 32 are internal medications and 32 are external medications and methods.

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